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Calculator Articles & Documentation

Last Updated 3/22/2023

This page of the Old Calculator Web Museum serves as a general repository for articles, photos and documentation relating to calculator history, technology reference, reflections from "those who were there" and non-advertising documentation (manuals, service information), as well as other information that doesn't fit the other sections of the site.

One especially interesting section is the "Recollections and Reflections" area, where folks who worked in the electronic calculator business at the time share their stories. There is no better way to get a feeling for what it was like in the mid-1960' through the early 1970's during the explosive growth of the electronic calculator industry took place than to hear about it from those who lived it.

If you have a story that you would like to share regarding your experiences with calculating technology from the 1960's through the mid-1970's, I'd definitely like to hear from you.

If you have old calculator documentation such as schematics, service manuals, operator's manuals, or other electronic calculator-related documentation that you would like shared in this repository, please also get in touch. Click the EMail button at the menu bar at the top of this page to drop the Old Calculator Museum a line.

Recollections & Reflections
The Friden EC-130: The World's Second Electronic Desktop Calculator [Nicholas Bodley]
Monroe 1880 Programming Memories [John Engels]
My Life & Times at Friden/Singer [Dick Ahrens]
Wang 300-Series Calculator Memories [John Lesesne]
My Early Days at Wang Laboratories [Dennis McNurland]
The Fascinating Engineering Inside an Early Electronic Calculator [Cliff Stoll on the Friden EC-132 Courtesy of Popular Mechanics Magazine]

Calculator History Essays
The Victor 3900 - History's Forgotten Miracle [Rick Bensene]
The History of Compucorp [Rick Bensene]
Wang Laboratories: From Custom Systems to Computers [Rick Bensene]
A Timeline of Calculator History [Rick Bensene]
Calculator News Article Archive [Rick Bensene]

Calculator Technology Notes
Tech Notes: Presin Co., Inc. MODUPRINT Technical Bulletin 602 (Wang LOCI Printer) [PDF, 4 Pages, 380KB]
Tech Notes: Hitachi HD3100-Series PMOS Calculator IC Data sheets [PDF, 21 Pages, 44MB]
Tech Notes: Sharp Calculator Serial Number Decoding
Tech Notes: Wang 360SE
Tech Notes: Wang 300-Series Logibloc Inventory
Tech Notes: Wang Laboratories IC Reference
Tech Notes: Wang 700-Series Calculator Architecture
Tech Notes: Wang 700-Series Logibloc Inventory
Tech Notes: Known Wang 400-Series Program Codes
Tech Notes: Compucorp HTL Chip set Microcode Instruction Set
Tech Notes: Friden EC-130 Block Diagram
Tech Notes: Friden 132 Square Root Mathematics [PDF, 3.3MB]
Tech Notes: Friden Final Engineering Report on the EC-130 Delay Line [PDF, 48 Pages, 3.4MB]

Calculator Manuals & Documentation
User Manual: Instruction Manual for the Friden EC-130 [PDF, 52 Pages, 7.3MB]
User Manual: Reference Manual for the Wang LOCI-2 [PDF, 108 Pages, 15.7MB]
User Manual: Instruction Manual for the Wyle Laboratories WS-01/WS-02 Scientific [PDF, 20 Pages, 768KB]
User Manual: Industria Macchine Elettroniche (IME) Model 26 Instruction Manual [PDF, 28 Pages, 6.9MB]
Programming Manual: Friden 1151 Programming Reference Manual [PDF, 24 Pages, 3.5MB]
User Manual: Friden 1152 User Reference Manual [PDF, 24 Pages, 10.3MB]
User Manual: Sharp Micro Compet QT-8D Instruction Manual [PDF, 20 Pages, 890KB]
User Manual: Wang 720 A/B Reference Manual, Mid-1970 [PDF, 97 Pages, 5.4MB]
User Manual: Friden 1155 Reference Manual, September, 1972 [PDF, 98 Pages, 5.5MB]
User Manual: Tektronix Model 31 Operator Manual [PDF, 200 Pages, 24.4MB]
Programming Manual: Monroe 1880 Programming Reference Manual [PDF, 99 Pages, 50MB]
User Manual: Wang Labs 452 Advanced Scientist Self-Teaching Reference Manual [PDF, 240 Pages, 109MB]
Instruction Manual: Sharp Compet 364R Instruction Manual [PDF, 80 Pages, 14.6MB]
User Manual: Rockwell 960 Operator Manual [PDF, 83 Pages, 73.7MB]
User Manual: Friden 1202 & Friden 1203 Operator Manual [PDF, 12 Pages, 1.3MB]
User Manual: Victor 4900 Operator Manual [PDF, 48 Pages, 4.2MB]
Programming Manual: Victor 4900 Programmer's Manual [PDF, 100 Pages, 10.4MB]

Calculator Service Manuals
Service Documentation: Friden EC-130  Field Service Manual [PDF, 51 Pages, 18MB]
Schematic: Logic Schematic for the "Four-Counter" Friden EC-130 [PDF, 1 Page, 4.9MB]
Service Documentation: Friden EC-130/Friden EC-132  MDD Definition Document [PDF, 23 Pages, 13MB]
Service Manual: Friden EC-130 Service Manual [PDF, 161 Pages, 430MB]
Service Documentation: Initial "Four-Counter" Friden EC-130 MDD Computer Printout [PDF, 147 Pages, 18.4MB]
Service Manual: "Three-Counter" Friden EC-130 Service Manual Supplement [PDF, 26 Pages, 80MB]
Schematic: Logic Schematic for the "Three-Counter" Friden EC-130 [PDF, 1 Page, 2.4MB]
Service Manual: Friden EC-132 Temporary Service Manual [PDF, 44 Pages, 50MB] Temporary Service Manual [PDF, 44 Pages, 50MB]
Service Documentation: Initial "Four-Counter"  Friden EC-132  MDD Computer Printout  [PDF, 188 Pages, 133MB]
Schematic: Logic Schematic for the "Four Counter" Friden 132 [PDF, 1 Page, 3.8MB]
Service Documentation: Friden EC-130/EC-132   Service Letters #1(7/21/1964) to #35(6/3/1968)
Service Documentation: Friden EC-130  Service Fliers #99(5/27/1964) to #244(6/28/1966)
Schematic: Logic Schematic for the Friden 1150 Printing Electronic Calculator [PDF, 1 Page, 5.5MB]
Service Manual: Monroe 920 Service Manual [PDF, 116 Pages, 10MB]
Technical Manual: Monroe 925 Logic and Timing Manual [PDF, 116 Pages, 10MB]
Technical Manual: Canon Canola 1200 Logic and Timing Manual [PDF, 23 Pages, 4.8MB]
Service Manual: Friden 1113 Service Manual [PDF, 132 Pages, 74MB]
Schematic: Logic Schematic for Friden 1160 [PDF, 1 Page, 4.7MB]
Schematic: Logic Schematic for Friden 1162 [PDF, 1 Page, 2.4MB]
Schematic: Logic Schematic for Friden 1166 [PDF, 1 Page, 6.8MB]
Service Manual: Friden EC-1115 Service Manual [PDF, 118 Pages, 84MB]
Schematic: Schematic of Heathkit IC-2008A Calculator

Calculator-Related Articles
Overview of the Monroe Monrobot III [PDF, 4 Pages, 350K]
Late 1965 Friden Competitive Analysis [PDF, 51 Pages, 22.7 MB]
Hewlett Packard Journal, September, 1969 Featuring the HP 9100A Calculator [PDF, 22 Pages, 23MB]
Hewlett Packard Journal, October, 1970 The HP 9101A Memory Expansion for the 9100A/9100B Calculators [PDF, 6 Pages, 1.1MB]
Hewlett Packard Journal, December, 1972 Introducing the HP 9800-Series Calculators [PDF, 28 Pages, 5.3MB]
Hewlett Packard Journal, April, 1974 The 9880A/B Mass Storage System for the 9830A Calculator [PDF, 12 Pages, 2.4MB]
Texas Instruments SR-60A Newsletter, No. 6, May 1, 1978 TI's Distributor Newsletter for the SR-60A "Personal Computer/Calculator" [PDF, 4 Pages, 2.7MB]
Delay Lines - key to low cost in keyboard machines, Electronics Magazine, June, 1969 [PDF, 4 Pages, 7.6MB]

Wang Laboratories' Programmer Periodical Archive
July, 1969 - Vol 3, No 7 [PDF, 16 Pages, 3.3M]
March, 1970 - Vol 4, No 3 [PDF, 36 Pages, 7.5M]
June, 1970 - Vol 4, No 6 [PDF, 36 Pages, 10.5M]

Historical Documents
Friden History - A Profile, 1967

Photo Library
Texas Instruments' proof-of-concept Cal-Tech "pocket-able" electronic calculator, circa late 1966.
Friden's Chief Calculator Architect, Robert Ragen with Friden 1151 circuit boards.

Friden STW-10 In Operation [4.4 MB]
Casio fx-1 In Operation [1.5 MB]
SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR In Operation [5 MB]
Wang 360KT/360SE In Operation [5 MB]
Documentary on Early Japanese Electronic Calculator History [YouTube]

Old Calculator Museum Interview on Busicom 141-PF on NPR's Morning Market Report - 12/16/2022

Other Information
The Old Calculator Museum Blog
The Physical Old Calculator Museum
Old Calculator Web Museum FAQ
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Links to Other Calculator-Related Sites
Acknowledgements, Credits, and Thanks
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